THINGS TO CONSIDER FOR STORAGE IMPLEMENTATION
DATA GROWTH: – When the organization is growing then the data will also have a good step towards growth. All the data is in electronic format which will consume a lot of storage area, we need to find an alternative for this problem because its growth is in unpredictable rate which can cause the problem for any organization. DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES IN ELECTRONIC FORMAT
There are different types of data which are created by human and machine resources. Emails and files which are scanned will be human made data, machine-made data will be medical imaging systems, telecommunications, utility equipment and financial transactions. Currently, the data storage capacity for large organizations in different fields like healthcare, media, financial and various digital industry are using petabyte-sized storage which is not sufficient due to rapid growth in size, quantity, and lifespan. Managing the data across geographical locations will be challenging because we need to use data in a fast-paced environment with a continuous flow of data. DIFFICULTY IN MANAGING DATA
DATA STORAGE SOLUTIONS: – there are few solutions to save the vast amount of data. We can use disks, disk arrays, just bunch of disks (JBOD) and intelligent storage systems.
- Disks: – These are used for desktops computers (3.5 inches) and laptops (2.5 inches). It uses rapidly rotating platters which are coated with the magnetic material used for storing and retrieving digital information.
- Disk Arrays: – Collection of disks to use in a redundant manner that is controlled by firmware. It contains cache memory, a Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) and virtualization. Advantages: – Availability, resiliency, and maintainability by using controllers, fans and power supplies.
- Just Bunch of Disks (JBOD): – They are not in RAID configuration, without any pooling or structuring we can use in servers as storage. They can be used as single logical volume or separate logical volume. Used in Windows and Linux which have software volume management.
- Intelligent Storage Systems: – There are 4 key components- front-end, cache, back-end and physical disks. First, the Input/output request received from the host at the front-end will be sent through the cache and the back-end to enable storage and retrieval of data from the physical disks. The cache can respond to read request if the data is found in the cache.
INTELLIGENT SYSTEM STORAGE
FACTORS TO CONSIDER FOR STORAGE SOLUTION: –
There are many storage solutions in the market but there are few factors where the users consider to suit their needs.
APPLICATIONS: – There are certain applications which are useful for business, data will be required to store for those applications. For example, consider Amazon Pvt Ltd which has introduced an application for online services so for this we need additional storage.
DATA PROTECTION: – data should be protected from any methods of destruction like disks data may be lost, disks may burn or due to any natural disasters. We need built-in protection for data lost but for any physical damage, we need to implement disaster recovery strategies. We need to create backup disks in some other geographical locations. For example, tape backups can be periodically made and sent to any other geographical locations simultaneously storing in two different locations.
DATA AVAIBILITY: – data must be available always, this can be done by data protection and making it available as soon as possible. To make data available there are few ways like hardware redundancy, application availability and disaster recovery systems. In hardware redundancy, the data is replication in two different storage systems, if one fails then the data can be taken from another storage system so that user can access data immediately, it’s called high availability configuration. Sometimes, even the disk fails the applications should be available that type is called as application availability, whereas in some businesses such as trading or financial recovery is not a good option they should have disaster recovery plans.
DATA SECURITY: – data should be protected from intrusion caused by outside environment, sometimes internal security breaches are caused so we need data to transmit from on storage system to other. The other ways are integrating storage system with security implementations. Data should be encrypted for protection and for decryption we need to provide the key.
SCALABILITY: – as organizations grow the data storage systems should also grow to match the organization needs. One way to do this is by implementing storage grip so that all the storage systems relate to each other and can be accessed within the grip.
PERFORMANCE: – which involves the throughput, response time, capacity and reliability of storage systems. The performance cannot be connected with isolation when there is fast storage system but slow servers the performance will be lowered.
COST: – the cost of the storage system includes not only the cost of the system but also the cost of maintenance of the system. Cost efficient solution will be simple to manage, reliable and higher availability.
There are few storage technologies like direct attached storage, network attached storage, storage virtualization, flash storage and cloud computing we will discuss each topic individually.
DIRECT-ATTACHED STORAGE (DAS): – it is digital storage system which is attached without any network storage in between. It can be individual disk from the server or client, a group of disks within the server. The major protocols used for DAS are ATA, SATA, SCSI,FC, SAS which will be discussed in next module.
DIRECT-ATTACHED STORAGE ARCHITECTURE
Best suited for single servers or few servers. For example, small businesses don’t need to share data with long distance enterprises. DAS allows application servers to give the best performance. It is also cost-effective storage system for small office house office (SOHO) network. for organizations with rapid growthDAS is not suitable for its scalability. So the implementation of NAS and SAN becomes important for these type of storage systems, from both cost perspective and administration perspective.
NETWORK-ATTACHED STORAGE (NAS): – it is a file based storage system that makes data available in network models. It uses CIFS, NIFS protocols for file services. Servers don’t store the data we will have separate NAS storage system so that servers can perform at high speeds.
Users access the data from Ethernet switch which connects NAS storage system and appears as a file server with an IP address. It consists disks array or RAID technology to protect against disk failure for additional storage external storage can be attached.
It’s east to install, deploy and manage used in organizations for cost-effective and can be accessed by many devices. It’s good for consolidation of DAS resources for better utilization because DAS system will use only half of the full capacity but NAS, the utilization rate is high because storage is shared across multiple servers and used completely.
NETWORK-ATTACHED STORAGE ARCHITECTURE
STORAGE AREA NETWORKS (SAN): – is a block base data storage system which makes available over the network using FC, FCoE and ISCSI protocols. There are four different layers- client layer, server layer, fabric layer, and the storage layer.
It is used to move large blocks of data to single storage devices, used for databases, imaging and transaction processing.
STORAGE AREA NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
There are different types of SANs:-
- FIBRE CHANNEL (FC) SAN: – the default protocol for SAN environment with high-speed network technology used for storage. It contains host bus adaptors (HBA) which are connected directly to the servers and also be connected to clients using FC switch. The FC switch can detect failed connections and reroute data to the correct devices. The benefits of FC SAN are a fast backup and restore, improve business continuance, high availability, and storage consolidation.
- FC OVER ETHERNET (FCoE) SAN: – it combines FC protocol and an enhanced 10-Gigabit ethernet. This type is used for good performance quality and same service as FC. It also eliminates the need for two different data center networks reducing network cost and complexity.
- ISCSI SAN: – it’s an IP-based storage access protocol. The main components are ISCSI initiators and ISCSI targets. Initiators will send ISCSI command sequences and targets are storage devices with ISCSI enabled. It uses standard Ethernet cables, adapters, and switches.
STORAGE VIRTUALIZATION: – storage virtualization is done by storing all the data from different physical devices to a single virtual space, where the users can request the storage space from the pool of disks available at virtual space.
STORAGE VIRTUALIZATION ARCHITECTURE
There are some benefits for using storage virtualization: –
- Increase Utilization: – by storing in a virtual environment the users can use the pool of storage available and is easy to manage for the administrator. This will increase storage utilization.
- Simplify Storage Management: – in virtualized storage, the administrator can manage the storage from a single device without configuring many physical devices. The storage can be monitored easily if any updates or errors occur it can be managed from a single physical device. It can be thinly provisioned or dynamically provisioned.
- Increase Flexibility: – it is easy to send or migrate storage disk from one geographical location to another without making any adjustments to the applications. Even for disaster recovery process, it will be easy to back up the storage system in the virtual
ADVANCED STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
- FLASH STORAGE: – it is used nowadays for storage systems. It offers good speed, uses less electricity and it consumes less power to read data faster. Flash storage consists of a memory unit, access controller. Memory unit will store data and access controller will manage and control the free space in the storage. It is flexible, cost-efficient and optimizes storage.
- CLOUD COMPUTING: – virtual servers are used to access applications and used in data centers to manage everything from a single physical device. It can be moved from one location to another without any change for physical devices.
There are three types of cloud computing:-
- PRIVATE CLOUD: – this type of cloud is operated by a single organization and used within that organization or by a third-party. It is very secure and easy to control but the company needs to spend more money in buying software and infrastructure. It’s best for organizations that depend on their own data and applications, requires a secure and private network.
- PUBLIC CLOUD: – all the services and infrastructures are available to public use. It is best used for sharing resources effectively, and it’s very cost-efficient which doesn’t require any cost for software is available over the internet. But this is not secure to share any personal details its vulnerable throughout the internet and can be accessed by anyone.
- HYBRID CLOUD: – it is a combination of both public and private cloud where users can maintain the data more efficiently possible by spreading data in the hybrid cloud. Organizations have to keep an eye on all the secure platforms which don’t mix with public users and need to allow only required data access to the public.
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